factors. As the Second Circuit did in Wal-Mart Stores, I combine certain of the factors and discuss them together. See 396 F.3d at 118 (combining fourth, fifth, and sixth factors), 119 (combining eighth and ninth factors). Of course, I consider also the objections to the ASA. As a preliminary matter, I conclude that most of the Grinnell factors favor approval of the settlement. The ASA was the product of arm's length negotiations between experienced, capable counsel, with assistance from DOJ. Further litigation would be complex, expensive, and time-consuming. Although the parties have conducted only limited discovery, the case has been pending for some years. The legal and factual issues are complex, and there is a risk that if plaintiffs were to proceed to trial, they would be unable to establish liability or prove damages. As discussed further below, substantial questions exist as to whether the case could be maintained as a class action, in its present form, through trial. In light of the attendant risks, the financial aspects of the ASA fall well within the range of reasonableness. Only two of the Grinnell factors weigh against approval of the settlement: the reaction of the class and defendant's ability to withstand judgment. As for the latter, there is no -18-
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